Ubuntu-icon Ubuntu
October 20, 2004 (edit)
Version: 19.04 Disco Dingo (edit)
Release Date: April 18, 2019 (edit)
Next Release: 19.10 (edit)
Platform(s): x86-64, ARM, PPC (edit)
Packaging: DEB (edit)
Interface(s): GNOME (default), Unity (secondary default), KDE, Xfce, LXDE, Budgie, MATE (edit)
Derivative of: Debian (edit)
Home Page: (edit)

Ubuntu (pronounced /ʊˈbʊntuː/) is a Debian-based Linux distribution developed by Canonical Ltd, with a focus on the human touch, especially on usability and functionality even by non-technical users. It's created and funded by entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth through his company Canonical Ltd.

Name Etymology

Ubuntu's idiosyncratic name is derived from a South African word which roughly translates to "humanity towards others" or "solidarity among people." This philosophy is reflected in its logo, a highly stylized suggestion of three people of different complexions embracing, arm-in-arm in a circle.

History and Development

Ubuntu is built on Debian's architecture and infrastructure, to provide Linux server, desktop, phone, tablet and TV operating systems. Ubuntu releases updated versions predictably – every six months – and each release receives free support for nine months (eighteen months prior to 13.04) with security fixes, high-impact bug fixes and conservative, substantially beneficial low-risk bug fixes. The first release was in October 2004.

It was decided that every fourth release, issued on a two-year basis, would receive long-term support (LTS). Long-term support includes updates for new hardware, security patches and updates to the 'Ubuntu stack' (cloud computing infrastructure). The first LTS releases were supported for three years on the desktop and five years on the server; since Ubuntu 12.04 LTS, desktop support for LTS releases was increased to five years as well. LTS releases get regular point releases with support for new hardware and integration of all the updates published in that series to date.


Ubuntu is currently supporting four releases;

Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus is the previous LTS, released on April, 2016. It will receive updates for five years until April 2021.

Ubuntu 18.04 Bionic Beaver is most recent LTS, released on April 26, 2018. It will receive updates for five years until April 2023.

Ubuntu 18.10 Cosmic Cuttlefish is the previous stable Ubuntu, released on October 18, 2018. It will receive updates for nine months until July 2019.

Ubuntu 19.04 Disco Dingo is the most recent Ubuntu, released on April 18, 2019. It will receive updates for nine months until January 2020.

CPU Support

Ubuntu is officially available on two platforms:

  • 32-bit x86 (for default Ubuntu not supported)
  • 64-bit x86-64

The community has developed Ubuntu on other platforms such as ARM or PowerPC which are not officially supported.

Ubuntu & Canonical

Canonical is a company run by Mark Shuttleworth that provides funding and development for the Ubuntu project. There was a lot of controversy about Canonical making Ubuntu profitable and the decisions began to be more Canonical and profit focused rather than community-friendly. Canonical also may change any part of the Ubuntu system, as part of the contract.

System Requirements

  • 1000 MHz processor (Intel Celeron or better)
  • 512MiB RAM for x86, recommended 1024MiB, 1500MiB for x86_64, recommended 2048MiB
  • 7 GB of hard-drive space
  • GPU with 3D Acceleration and at least 512MiB of memory.
  • Either a CD/DVD drive or a USB port for the installer media

Packaging Infrastructure

Although Ubuntu is a derivative of Debian, Ubuntu maintains its own packaging infrastructure that is periodically synchronized with the main Debian repositories.

External links

Official Ubuntu distributions
Ubuntu GNOME (discounted from 17.10) • Ubuntu MATEUbuntu BudgieUbuntu Kylin
KubuntuEdubuntuLubuntuXubuntuUbuntu StudioMythbuntu